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February 8, 2012 9:33 am

text alignment

11.3.2 Horizontal and vertical alignment

The following attributes may be set for different table elements (see their definitions).

<!-- horizontal alignment attributes for cell contents -->
<!ENTITY % cellhalign
"align (left|center|right|justify|char) #IMPLIED
char %Character; #IMPLIED -- alignment char, e.g. char=':' --
charoff %Length; #IMPLIED -- offset for alignment char --"
>
<!-- vertical alignment attributes for cell contents -->
<!ENTITY % cellvalign
"valign (top|middle|bottom|baseline) #IMPLIED"
>

Attribute definitions

align = left|center|right|justify|char [CI]This attribute specifies the alignment of data and the justification of text in a cell. Possible values:
  • left: Left-flush data/Left-justify text. This is the default value for table data.
  • center: Center data/Center-justify text. This is the default value for table headers.
  • right: Right-flush data/Right-justify text.
  • justify: Double-justify text.
  • char: Align text around a specific character. If a user agent doesn’t support character alignment, behavior in the presence of this value is unspecified.
valign = top|middle|bottom|baseline [CI]This attribute specifies the vertical position of data within a cell. Possible values:
  • top: Cell data is flush with the top of the cell.
  • middle: Cell data is centered vertically within the cell. This is the default value.
  • bottom: Cell data is flush with the bottom of the cell.
  • baseline: All cells in the same row as a cell whose valign attribute has this value should have their textual data positioned so that the first text line occurs on a baseline common to all cells in the row. This constraint does not apply to subsequent text lines in these cells.
char = character [CN]This attribute specifies a single character within a text fragment to act as an axis for alignment. The default value for this attribute is the decimal point character for the current language as set by the lang attribute (e.g., the period (“.”) in English and the comma (“,”) in French). User agents are not required to support this attribute.charoff = length [CN]When present, this attribute specifies the offset to the first occurrence of the alignment character on each line. If a line doesn’t include the alignment character, it should be horizontally shifted to end at the alignment position.

When charoff is used to set the offset of an alignment character, the direction of offset is determined by the current text direction (set by the dir attribute). In left-to-right texts (the default), offset is from the left margin. In right-to-left texts, offset is from the right margin. User agents are not required to support this attribute.

The table in this example aligns a row of currency values along a decimal point. We set the alignment character to “.” explicitly.

<TABLE border="1">
<COLGROUP>
<COL><COL align="char" char=".">
<THEAD>
<TR><TH>Vegetable <TH>Cost per kilo
<TBODY>
<TR><TD>Lettuce <TD>$1
<TR><TD>Silver carrots <TD>$10.50
<TR><TD>Golden turnips <TD>$100.30
</TABLE>

The formatted table may resemble the following:

------------------------------
| Vegetable |Cost per kilo|
|--------------|-------------|
|Lettuce | $1 |
|--------------|-------------|
|Silver carrots| $10.50|
|--------------|-------------|
|Golden turnips| $100.30|

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9:18 am

new HTML info!

This section of the specification discusses some HTML elements and attributes that may be used for visual formatting of elements. Many of them are deprecated.

15.1 Formatting

15.1.1 Background color

Attribute definitions

bgcolor = color [CI]Deprecated. This attribute sets the background color for the document body or table cells.

This attribute sets the background color of the canvas for the document body (the BODY element) or for tables (the TABLE, TR, TH, and TD elements). Additional attributes for specifying text color can be used with the BODY element.

This attribute has been deprecated in favor of style sheets for specifying background color information.

15.1.2 Alignment

It is possible to align block elements (tables, images, objects, paragraphs, etc.) on the canvas with the align attribute. Although this attribute may be set for many HTML elements, its range of possible values sometimes differs from element to element. Here we only discuss the meaning of the align attribute for text.

Attribute definitions

align = left|center|right|justify [CI]Deprecated. This attribute specifies the horizontal alignment of its element with respect to the surrounding context. Possible values:
  • left: text lines are rendered flush left.
  • center: text lines are centered.
  • right: text lines are rendered flush right.
  • justify: text lines are justified to both margins.

The default depends on the base text direction. For left to right text, the default is align=left, while for right to left text, the default is align=right.

DEPRECATED EXAMPLE:
This example centers a heading on the canvas.

<H1 align="center"> How to Carve Wood </H1>

Using CSS, for example, you could achieve the same effect as follows:

<HEAD>
<TITLE>How to Carve Wood</TITLE>
<STYLE type="text/css">
H1 { text-align: center}
</STYLE>
<BODY>
<H1> How to Carve Wood </H1>

Note that this would center all H1 declarations. You could reduce the scope of the style by setting the class attribute on the element:

<HEAD>
<TITLE>How to Carve Wood</TITLE>
<STYLE type="text/css">
H1.wood {text-align: center}
</STYLE>
<BODY>
<H1 class="wood"> How to Carve Wood </H1>

DEPRECATED EXAMPLE:
Similarly, to right align a paragraph on the canvas with HTML’s align attribute you could have:

<P align="right">...Lots of paragraph text...

which, with CSS, would be:

<HEAD>
<TITLE>How to Carve Wood</TITLE>
<STYLE type="text/css">
P.mypar {text-align: right}
</STYLE>
<BODY>
<P class="mypar">...Lots of paragraph text...

DEPRECATED EXAMPLE:
To right align a series of paragraphs, group them with the DIV element:

<DIV align="right">
<P>...text in first paragraph...
<P>...text in second paragraph...
<P>...text in third paragraph...
</DIV>

With CSS, the text-align property is inherited from the parent element, you can therefore use:

<HEAD>
<TITLE>How to Carve Wood</TITLE>
<STYLE type="text/css">
DIV.mypars {text-align: right}
</STYLE>
<BODY>
<DIV class="mypars">
<P>...text in first paragraph...
<P>...text in second paragraph...
<P>...text in third paragraph...
</DIV>

To center the entire document with CSS:

<HEAD>
<TITLE>How to Carve Wood</TITLE>
<STYLE type="text/css">
BODY {text-align: center}
</STYLE>
<BODY>
...the body is centered...
</BODY>

The CENTER element is exactly equivalent to specifying the DIV element with the align attribute set to “center”. The CENTER element is deprecated.

15.1.3 Floating objects

Images and objects may appear directly “in-line” or may be floated to one side of the page, temporarily altering the margins of text that may flow on either side of the object.

Float an object 

The align attribute for objects, images, tables, frames, etc., causes the object to float to the left or right margin. Floating objects generally begin a new line. This attribute takes the following values:

  • left: Floats the object to the current left margin. Subsequent text flows along the image’s right side.
  • right: Floats the object to the current right margin. Subsequent text flows along the image’s left side.

DEPRECATED EXAMPLE:
The following example shows how to float an IMG element to the current left margin of the canvas.

<IMG align="left" src="http://foo.com/animage.gif" alt="my boat">

Some alignment attributes also permit the “center” value, which does not cause floating, but centers the object within the current margins. However, for P and DIV, the value “center” causes the contents of the element to be centered.

Float text around an object 

Another attribute, defined for the BR element, controls text flow around floating objects.

Attribute definitions

clear = none|left|right|all [CI]Deprecated. Specifies where the next line should appear in a visual browser after the line break caused by this element. This attribute takes into account floating objects (images, tables, etc.). Possible values:
  • none: The next line will begin normally. This is the default value.
  • left: The next line will begin at nearest line below any floating objects on the left-hand margin.
  • right: The next line will begin at nearest line below any floating objects on the right-hand margin.
  • all: The next line will begin at nearest line below any floating objects on either margin.

Consider the following visual scenario, where text flows to the right of an image until a line is broken by a BR:

*********  -------
| | -------
| image | --<BR>
| |
*********

If the clear attribute is set to none, the line following BR will begin immediately below it at the right margin of the image:

*********  -------
| | -------
| image | --<BR>
| | ------
*********

DEPRECATED EXAMPLE:
If the clear attribute is set to left or all, the next line will appear as follows:

*********  -------
| | -------
| image | --<BR clear="left">
| |
*********
-----------------

Using style sheets, you could specify that all line breaks should behave this way for objects (images, tables, etc.) floating against the left margin. With CSS, you could achieve this as follows:

<STYLE type="text/css">
BR { clear: left }
</STYLE>

To specify this behavior for a specific instance of the BR element, you could combine style information and the id attribute:

<HEAD>
...
<STYLE type="text/css">
BR#mybr { clear: left }
</STYLE>
</HEAD>
<BODY>
<P>...
********* -------
| | -------
| table | --<BR id="mybr">
| |
*********
-----------------
...
</BODY>

15.2 Fonts

The following HTML elements specify font information. Although they are not all deprecated, their use is discouraged in favor of style sheets.

15.2.1 Font style elements: the TT, I, B, BIG, SMALL, STRIKE, S, and U elements

<!ENTITY % fontstyle
"TT | I | B | BIG | SMALL">
<!ELEMENT (%fontstyle;|%phrase;) - - (%inline;)*>
<!ATTLIST (%fontstyle;|%phrase;)
%attrs; -- %coreattrs, %i18n, %events --
>

Start tag: required, End tag: required

Rendering of font style elements depends on the user agent. The following is an informative description only.

TT: Renders as teletype or monospaced text.I: Renders as italic text style.B: Renders as bold text style.BIG: Renders text in a “large” font.SMALL: Renders text in a “small” font.STRIKE and S: Deprecated. Render strike-through style text.U: Deprecated. Renders underlined text.

The following sentence shows several types of text:

<P><b>bold</b>,
<i>italic</i>, <b><i>bold italic</i></b>, <tt>teletype text</tt>, and
<big>big</big> and <small>small</small> text.

These words might be rendered as follows:

An example of rendering of various font styles

It is possible to achieve a much richer variety of font effects using style sheets. To specify blue, italic text in a paragraph with CSS:

<HEAD>
<STYLE type="text/css">
P#mypar {font-style: italic; color: blue}
</STYLE>
</HEAD>
<P id="mypar">...Lots of blue italic text...

Font style elements must be properly nested. Rendering of nested font style elements depends on the user agent.

15.2.2 Font modifier elements: FONT and BASEFONT

FONT and BASEFONT are deprecated.

See the Transitional DTD for the formal definition.

Attribute definitions

size  = cdata [CN]Deprecated. This attribute sets the size of the font. Possible values:
  • An integer between 1 and 7. This sets the font to some fixed size, whose rendering depends on the user agent. Not all user agents may render all seven sizes.
  • A relative increase in font size. The value “+1” means one size larger. The value “-3” means three sizes smaller. All sizes belong to the scale of 1 to 7.
color = color [CI]Deprecated. This attribute sets the text color.face = cdata [CI]Deprecated. This attribute defines a comma-separated list of font names the user agent should search for in order of preference.

The FONT element changes the font size and color for text in its contents.

The BASEFONT element sets the base font size (using the size attribute). Font size changes achieved with FONT are relative to the base font size set by BASEFONT. If BASEFONT is not used, the default base font size is 3.

DEPRECATED EXAMPLE:
The following example will show the difference between the seven font sizes available with FONT:

<P><font size=1>size=1</font>
<font size=2>size=2</font>
<font size=3>size=3</font>
<font size=4>size=4</font>
<font size=5>size=5</font>
<font size=6>size=6</font>
<font size=7>size=7</font>

This might be rendered as:

Example of rendering of various font sizes

The following shows an example of the effect of relative font sizes using a base font size of 3:

Example of rendering of various font sizes with a basefont

The base font size does not apply to headings, except where these are modified using the FONT element with a relative font size change.

15.3 Rules: the HR element

<!ELEMENT HR - O EMPTY -- horizontal rule -->
<!ATTLIST HR
%attrs; -- %coreattrs, %i18n, %events --
>

Start tag: required, End tag: forbidden

Attribute definitions

align = left|center|right [CI]Deprecated. This attribute specifies the horizontal alignment of the rule with respect to the surrounding context. Possible values:
  • left: the rule is rendered flush left.
  • center: the rule is centered.
  • right: the rule is rendered flush right.

The default is align=center.

noshade [CI]Deprecated. When set, this boolean attribute requests that the user agent render the rule in a solid color rather than as the traditional two-color “groove”.size = pixels [CI]Deprecated. This attribute specifies the height of the rule. The default value for this attribute depends on the user agent.width = length [CI]Deprecated. This attribute specifies the width of the rule. The default width is 100%, i.e., the rule extends across the entire canvas.

The HR element causes a horizontal rule to be rendered by visual user agents.

The amount of vertical space inserted between a rule and the content that surrounds it depends on the user agent.

DEPRECATED EXAMPLE:
This example centers the rules, sizing them to half the available width between the margins. The top rule has the default thickness while the bottom two are set to 5 pixels. The bottom rule should be rendered in a solid color without shading:

<HR width="50%" align="center">
<HR size="5" width="50%" align="center">
<HR noshade size="5" width="50%" align="center">
January 31, 2012 9:43 am

emulators are very helpful as this song shows

9:39 am January 30, 2012 9:34 am
"don’t fear the reaper"

Blue Oyster Cult

January 26, 2012 9:11 am
9while9:

Obey sudo.
Poster art from Zazzle.com.

9while9:

Obey sudo.

Poster art from Zazzle.com.